Directional drilling

Suundpuurimine var.2The method can be used to construct pressured pipes, self-flowing short sections of pipes and sleeve pipes. The equipment consists of the following: drill press, mixer or compressor, location devices.

The first stage is pilot drilling. The suitable drill head is selected according to soil conditions. In pilot drilling, the location of the drill head is verified with a location device. This allows the operator to direct the drill head on the desired trajectory. During drilling, drill rods are connected to guide the drill head and direct special drill mix into the drill head. The composition of drill mix depends on the type of soil. When the drill head has reached the desired destination, it is replaced by an extender, behind which a retractable pipe is connected – usually a polyethylene pipe. Then the pipe is pulled into the pilot channel, where the extender in front enlarges the channel and directs drilling liquid into the channel. This decreases friction on the pipe and removes soil from the channel.

For pipes with larger diameters, so-called pre-extension is used before inserting the pipe to decrease tensile force and enlarge the channel “step by step”.

Directional drilling can be done from ground to ground (e.g. installing cable sleeves) or from pit to pit.

Pros (+) Cons (-)
Can be used in all types of soil, incl. limestone and granite Prior investigation of soil necessary
Minimal trace of diggings and cost of restoration (lower cost in many ways compared to open diggings)
Long stretches of installation
Installation reports for the location of the pipe

Pipe crushing

Pipe crushing and constructing new pipelines can also be carried out from well to well or from well to pit with this method in the case of smaller pipes. In this case, the existing well must be made of reinforced concrete and the well must have the minimum diameter of 1,000 mm.

Pros (+) Cons (-)
Increasing the diameter of the old pipe Relatively large digging track for larger pipe diameters
Low vibration Locations of joints must be dug up
The depth of the pipe does not significantly affect the cost of installing Follows the descent of the old pipe
 Length of installation Overpumping and/or temporary water supply required

Retracting pipes

The method can be used to renovate piping systems if the diameter of the existing piping system is permitted to decrease. The set of equipment consists of the following: winch, power station – can also be performed with directional drilling and bursting device.

Depending on the diameter of the new pipe, starting and finishing pits are constructed. In the case of a DN 110 pipe, pits are generally not necessary, as the flexing radius of the pipe enables to work via existing wells. A new pipe is pulled into the existing pipe. After pulling in the pipe, the gap between the new and old pipe is filled with foam concrete or special centering rings are installed around the new pipe before pulling it in. Filling with foam concrete is not necessary if the gap between the walls of the new and old pipe is less than 1/10 of the diameter of the old pipe.

Pros (+) Cons (-)
Quick installation Diameter of the old pipe is decreased
Large extent of installing Locations of joints must be dug up
The depth of the pipe does not significantly affect the cost of installing Follows the descent of the old pipe
 Does not require special skills Overpumping and/or temporary water supply required

Tube installation

Sukk_290911_whiteTube installation is known as the CIPP method – cured in place pipe. This is a pipe renovation method where a felt tube saturated with a special resin mix is inserted in the existing pipe with pressurized air or water pressure. When the base material has been inserted in the existing pipe, heating with steam, water or air begins. During the heating, the base (tube) hardens against the wall of the old pipe and forms a new durable pipe within the old pipe.

This method also enables to renovate vertical pipes.

Different base materials enable to renovate the following pipe systems: main lines, house connections, vertical pipes within the house and local fixes.

Pros (+) Cons (-)
Does not require trenches Performing the works is difficult below -5°C
Large length of installation  Overpumping required
Minimal disturbance of traffic and residents
Environmentally friendly materials
Stops roots from growing into pipes
Optimal cost
No need to dig in locations of joints

Tube installation of the main pipeline

Enables to renovate longer sections of pipes (up to 300 m) – length of installation depends on the specific object. The section of main pipeline to be renovated is closed and overpumping is done if necessary. The felt tube is saturated with resin mix either directly at the object or in the factory. After the saturation process, the tube is inserted in the old pipe via a special drum with pressurized air or water pressure.

In the next stage, the tube is heated (with hot air or water). With the increase of the temperature, a reaction takes place in the resin and it begins to harden. Depending on the diameter and length of the tube and the heating technology, hardening takes at least 2 hours. After hardening, the tube is cooled down and only then are the ends of the tube opened and the tube is cut loose from intermediate wells. In the case of blind connections, they are milled open with a special milling robot. Post-installation camera observation is performed and the renovated pipeline is opened for use.

Tube installation for house connection pipes

Tube installation for house connection pipe differs from tube installation of the main utility line only in materials and only air is used for heating. The materials also enable to renovate pipe systems with so-called elbows and minor changes in the diameter of the pipe.

Analogously with tube installation for a main utility line, digging is generally not necessary – only one location for inserting the tube is needed. It is also possible to renovate so-called blind house connections without digging. In this case, the tube must be inserted from the well on the side of the house or the basement.

Sukk - kohtparandusLocal repairs

Local repairs are used for locations where a part of the piping system has been damaged – a corrosion-proof glass fiber fabric saturated with a silicate and resin mix is placed on part of the pipe. Placing occurs with a special container used to move to the damaged spot. Pressurized air is used to push saturated fabric against the damaged pipe section in the entire perimeter and the saturated fabric hardens against the wall of the pipe.

The entire procedure is checked via a video camera. Diggings are not needed for installation if the size of wells enables to insert the container

Pimeühenduste renoveerimineRenovating blind connections (TopHats)

After the installation of a main utility line tube, it is always reasonable to also renovate the so-called blind connections. If that is not done, then one of the most important goals of renovating the main utility line is not ensured – removal of infiltration into the pipe. The TopHats method enables to renovate blind connections without digging. For that, a “hat” is installed on the connection from the utility line end (reaches into the house connection pipe system by 30 cm) which makes the connection watertight and ensures the necessary strength of the part of pipe system.


TükksujutusThe method can be used for renovate depreciated self-flowing pipe systems if it is permitted to decrease the diameter of the existing pipes. The set of equipment has additional devices to push the pipe and the power station.

The old pipes are pressure washed before starting the works and camera observation is used to check for blockages in the section of the pipe to be renovated. The installation chute with a pusher is installed in the bottom of the existing well, which is used to push reinforced PE-pipe modules with the length of 0.5 m into the old pipe. The modules are equipped with a special locking connector which prevents the disconnection of the modules in the old pipe. Works are performed from well to well, digging works are not necessary except for so-called blind connection spots. In principle, organizing overpumping is not necessary for the works. If necessary, the gap between the walls of the new and old pipe are filled with foam concrete after installation.

Pros (+) Cons (-)
Quick installation Requires foam concrete in certain cases
Large length of installation Digging necessary for blind connections
 Enables turns in up to 5 degrees Decreases the diameter of the pipe


Cementing wells

auguprits2The method is used for making existing observation wells and reservoirs watertight. Also known as torcreting. The equipment used is a mixing device with an injector and a compressor.

In the first stage, the well to be reconstructed is cleaned (with pressure washing) from dirt and sediments. In the second stage, leaks in the well are eliminated (holes, cracks where water seeps into the well) with a special plasticine-like substance and if necessary, the bottom of the well is profiled with a flow trench. In the third stage, the entire inner surface of the well is coated with an even layer and in the final stage, the final layer is applied, finishing the water-tightness of the well.

This method is not intended to increase the strength of the wall of the well, but only to stop infiltration, which is why it always pays for the contracting party to evaluate the actual condition of the wells beforehand.

Pros (+) Cons (-)
No complicated digging works Does not give better endurance to the walls of the well for external pressure, only stops infiltration
A quick and effective method of reconstruction


Hammer drilling

ImageThe method can be used to construct self-flowing pipe or sleeve pipe systems.

The equipment consists of a drilling device, power station and air compressor or mixer.

The pipes are usually installed from pit to pit.

After the pits have been prepared, the drilling device is installed in the starting pit, the angle of pipes is determined with a digital level and the drilling is carried out. The angle of pipes is verified during drilling.

The borehole is drilled with a compressed air hammer, using sleeve pipes with a screw conveyor which carries out the soil. The pipes are regular iron pipes. The method also allows to drill plastic pipes without metal sleeve.

Pros (+) Cons (-)
Can be used in all types of soil, incl. limestone and granite Requires prepared starting and finishing pits
Enables to drill sleeves with a predetermined angle and self-flowing pipes Instalment depth and level of surface water affect installation costs
Does not require additional anchoring or supporting walls to receive the working pressure of the device  Prior investigation of soil necessary
Minimal soil displacement
Minimal disturbance of traffic